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Article by Qaisar Nazir khawar

روبی ، جُوانا ، امریکی سفید فام نسل و قوم پرستی اور اکیسویں صدی
قیصر نذیر خاورؔ

یہ 1960 کی دہائی کا آغاز ہے ۔ آئزن ہاور امریکہ کا صدر ہے ۔ سفید نسل پرستی اپنے عروج پر ہے ۔ مارٹن لوتھر کنگ کی سیاہ فام امریکیوں کے حقوق کے لئے تحریک اپنی بنیاد پکڑ چکی ہے ۔

ایسے میں ایک سیاہ فام بچی روبی برِج (Ruby Bridges) ساری دنیا کی توجہ اپنی جانب مبذول کراتی ہے ۔ روبی برِج 14 نومبر1960 ء کو ایک ایسے میں سکول میں داخل ہوئی جہاں صرف سفید فام بچے ہی پڑھتے تھے ۔ اس کا اِس سکول میں داخل ہونا ہی تھا کہ سفید فام والدین نے اپنے بچے اس سکول ست اٹھانا شروع کر دئیے یہاں تک کہ سکول کی استانیوں نے بھی یہ کہہ کع احتجاجاً ہڑتال کر دی کہ جب تک یہ سیاہ فام بچی یہاں ہے وہ بچوں کو نہیں پڑھائیں گی ۔ صرف ایک استانی ایسی تھی جو اس ہڑتال میں شامل نہیں تھی ۔ یہ مسز باربرا بنری تھی جو روبی کو ایک سال تک کلاس روم میں اس طرح پڑھاتی رہی جیسے وہ پوری کلاس کو پڑھایا کرتی تھی ۔ معاملہ آئزن ہاور تک جا پہنچا اور اس نے اس بچی کی حفاظت کے لئے بوسٹن کی مقامی حکومت کو ہدایت کی کہ ‘ مارشلز ‘ کا ایک خصوصی سکواڈ مقرر کرے ۔ ہر روز جب روبی سکول جاتی تو کوئی نہ کوئی سفید فام عورت اسے تضحیک کا نشانہ بناتی ۔ ایک عورت نے ایک چھوٹا سا تابوت بنایا ، اس میں ایک کالے رنگ کی گڑیا لٹائی جس میں سوئیاں گاڑی گئیں تھیں ۔ وہ ایک تابوت کو اٹھائے پورا دن سکول کے سامنے اجتجاج کرتی رہی ۔ ایک اور سفید فام عورت نے تو اس کو یہ دھمکی تک دے ڈالی کہ وہ روبی کے کھانے میں زہر ملا دے گی ۔ اس دھمکی کے بعد روبی برِج صرف اپنے گھر کی بنی خوراک پر ہی محدود ہو کر رہ گئی ۔
روبی اس واقعات پر خاصی خوفزدہ ہوئی لیکن اس نے سکول جانا نہ چھوڑا ۔

امریکہ کا اقتدار ری پبلکن ‘ آئزن ہاور ‘ سے ڈیمو کریٹ ‘ جان ایف کینیڈی ‘ کے ہاتھوں میں آیا ، وہ 22 نومبر 1963ء کو قتل ہوا اور پھر ڈیمو کریٹ ‘ لنڈن بی جانسن ‘ کے ہاتھوں میں آیا ۔ یہ بالترتیب امریکہ کے34ویں 35ویں اور 36ویں صدور تھے ۔ 14 اکتوبر 1964ء کو مارٹن لوتھر کنگ جونئیر کو امن کے نوبل پرائز سے نوازا گیا ۔

یہ 12 دسمبر 1967 ء ہے ۔ امریکہ کے سنیماوٗں میں ایک فلم ریلیز ہوتی ہے ۔ اس کا نام ‘ Guess who is coming to Dinner ‘ ہے ۔ اس فلم کے مرکزی کردار ایک سیاہ فام مرد ( ڈاکٹر جان ) اور ایک سفید فام لڑکی (جوانا ) ہیں جو ایک دوسرے سے محبت کرتے ہیں اور لڑکی اپنے محبوب کو اپنے ‘ بڑوں ‘ ( میٹ اور کرسٹینا ) سے ملانا چاہتی ہے جس کے لئے اس سیاہ فام نے ‘ ڈنر’ کے لئے اس کے ہمراہ جانا ہوتا ہے ۔ اس فلم کا سکرپٹ ولیم روز نے لکھا تھا اور اس کی ہدایت کاری ‘ سٹینلے کریمر ‘ نے انجام دئیے ، وہ خود ہی اس فلم کا پروڈیوسر بھی تھا ۔ اس کی خوش قسمتی تھی کہ لڑکی کے والدین کے لئے اسے سپینسر ٹریسی (Spencer Tracy ) اور کیتھرین ہیپبرن (Katharine Hepburn ) مل گئے ۔ سیاہ فام جوان کا کردار اپنے وقت کا مشہور اداکار ‘ سڈنی پوئیٹر ‘ ادا کر رہا تھا ۔ مسئلہ یہ آن پڑا کہ ان تینوں بڑے اداکاروں کے ساتھ فلم کی ہیروئن کون بنے ؟ اس وقت کی تمام بڑی امریکی اور یورپی سفید فام اداکاروٗں نے اس فلم میں ہیروئن کا کردار ادا کرنے سے معذرت کر لی تھی ۔ وہ اس متنازع موضوع پر بننے والی فلم میں ایک سیاہ فام کی محبوبہ کا کردار کرکے خود کو متنازع نہیں بنانا چاہتی تھیں ۔ ایسے میں کیتھرین ہیپبرن ہی سٹینلے کریمر کے کام آئی اور نے اپنی بھانجی ‘کیتھرین ہوگٹن ‘ (Katharine Houghton ) کو سڈنی پوئیٹر کے مد مقابل کام کرنے پر راضی کر لیا یوں یہ فلم مکمل ہو پائی ۔ فلم باکس آفس پر ‘ روشن خیال ‘ حلقوں میں پسند کی گئی اور آٹھ کیٹیگریز میں آسکرز کے لئے نامزد بھی ہوئی جن میں بہترین فلم کے لئے نامزدی بھی شامل تھی ۔ جب آسکر ایوارڈ ہوئے تو یہ فلم صرف دو ہی حاصل کر پائی ایک : بہترین ادارہ ؛ کیتھرین ہیپبرن اور دوسرا : بہترین اوریجنل سکرین پلے ؛ ولیم روز ۔
اس فلم کو ریلیز ہوئے چند ماہ ہی ہوئے تھے کہ 4 اپریل 1968 ء کو سیاہ فاموں اور انسانی حقوق کی تحریک کے سیاہ فام آگو ‘ مارٹن لوتھر کنگ جوئیر ‘ کو میمفس ، ٹنیسی میں قتل کر دیا گیا ۔ اس کا قتل امریکہ بھر میں ‘ ہنگاموں ‘ کا باعث بنا ۔

یہ اکیسویں صدی کی دوسری صدی کے اختتامی سال ہیں ۔ ٹرمپ امریکہ کا 45 واں صدر ہے ۔ اس نے 20 جنوری 2017 ء کو اقتداد سنبھالنے سے پہلے سفید فام نسل پرستی اور قوم پرستی کو exploit کیا اور بعد میں ‘ اوباما کئیر ‘ پروگرام پر کٹ لگانے اور سات ملکوں کے باسیوں پر امریکہ میں آمد پر پابندی اور سخت امیگریشن پڑتال جیسے اقدامات اٹھا کر امریکہ کو ایک بار پھر اسی موڑ پر لا کھڑا کیا ہے جہاں امریکہ ‘ مارٹن لوتھر گنگ جونئیر ‘ کے قتل کے بعد کھڑا تھا ۔

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